Jacques Arnaud, Laurent Chusseau, Fabrice Philippe
The statistical properties of non-interacting bosons and fermions confined in rapping potentials are most easily obtained when the system may exchange
energy and particles with a large reservoir (grand-canonical ensemble). There are
circumstances, however, where the system under consideration may be Considered as being isolated (micro-canonical ensemble). This paper first reviews results relating to micro-canonical ensembles. Some of them were obtained a long time ago, particularly by Khinchin in 1950. Others were obtained only recently, often motivated by experimental results relating to atomic confinement. A number of formulas are reported for the first time in the present paper. Formulas applicable to the case where the system may exchange energy but not particles with a reservoir (canonical ensemble) are derived from the micro-canonical ensemble expressions. The differences between the three ensembles tend to vanish in the so-called Thermodynamics limit, that is, when the number of particles and the volume go to infinity while the particle number density remains constant. But we are mostly interested in systems of moderate size, often referred to as being mesoscopic, where the grand-canonical formalism is not applicable. The mathematical results rest primarily on the enumeration of partitions of numbers.